Glossary Entries

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Magnitude The numerical size or measure of an attribute (e.g., the area of a polygon, the volume of a solid).
Major Arc An arc of a circle that is longer than a semicircle.
Manipulatives Physical objects that can be used to help solve mathematical problems (e.g., tangrams, base ten blocks, number cubes, cards, rulers, counters, pattern blocks, cubes).
Map Scale A key that provides equivalence between a distance on a map and the associated real-world distance.
Mass The amount of matter or substance in an object; commonly taken as a measure of the amount of material it contains and causes it to have weight in a gravitational field. This should not be confused with weight, which is a measure of the force of gravity on an object. An apple weighs more on Jupiter than it does on Earth because Jupiter's gravity is stronger. However, the apple always has the same mass, no matter where it is.
Mathematical Argument A chain of mathematical reasoning intended to convince the audience of the truth of a statement.
Mathematical Conjectures A reasoned guess stated in mathematical terms.
Mathematical Phenomena Problems related purely to mathematics.Example: Negative Number * Negative Number = Positive Number
Mathematical Relationship The connection between two quantities, properties, or concepts (e.g., the diameter of a circle is twice its radius).
Mathematical Solution The statement(s) or value(s) that correctly answers a mathematical question or completes an open mathematical sentence.
Mathematical Statement A mathematical sentence whose truth-value can be determined to be either true or false.
Mathematical Symbol A character that is used to indicate a mathematical relation or operation; it has a precise mathematical meaning (e.g., =.-,/,*,root, neq).
Mathematics Also known as math. This field studies values, numbers, and quantities.Those values could be simple amounts such as the number of nuts. The values could also apply to shapes and describe length, width, and volume. When more than one value is involved, mathematics looks at changes. It could be as complex and the change in location of a planet or the change in amount when you start with five nuts and eat two.
Matrix A rectangular array of numbers, letters, or other entities arranged in rows and columns. The plural of matrix is "matrices."
Maximum/Minimum Point The highest/lowest point on a graph. A relative maximum/minimum is higher/lower than any other point in its immediate vicinity.
Mean It's not nasty; it's an average. When you add up all the numbers in a group and then divide by how many numbers you have. Example: The group of numbers 2,4,6,8. Four numbers in the group. The total is 20. Then divide by 4. The mean is 5.
Means of a Proportion The two middle terms in the ratios of a proportion (e.g., the means of the proportion 3/4=6/8 are 4 and 6).
Measurable Attribute An identifiable property of an object, set, or event that is subject to being measured. Some of the measurable attributes of a box are its length, weight, and capacity/volume.
Measure To find the dimensions or quantity (e.g., length, capacity) of an object or figure. Example: Find the perimeter of a regular hexagon whose side has a length of 6 cm OR Find the side of a square whose area is 81 square feet.
Measure of an Angle The number of degrees or radians contained in the angle.
Measure of Central Tendency A single number that represents a typical value for a set of numbers; the three most common measures of central tendency are the mean, median, and mode.
Measurement The amount obtained by measuring.
Median In statistics, the quantity designating the middle value in a set of numbers that are either in increasing or decreasing order. If there is no middle number, it is the average of the two middle numbers. Examples:The median of the numbers 1, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7 is 4. The median of the numbers 1, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 7 is4.5.
Mental Math Mental math happens when computations done by students "in their head" either completely or in part.
Meter A metric unit used to measure length; 1 meter = 100 centimeters = 1000 millimeters. The abbreviation for meter is "m."
Mathematical Reasoning Applying mathematical techniques, concepts, and processes (either explicitly or implicitly).
Mathematical Sentence The expression of a complete thought or fact, it contains an equal sign (=) or an inequality sign (>, <, <=, >= or neq). A mathematical sentence is an open sentence if it contains an unknown quantity or a variable, and the value of that variable determines if the sentence is true or false. A mathematical sentence is a closed sentence if it has no variable or unknown and it can be determined to be conclusively true or false. A closed sentence is also known as a statement.
Method of Proof A process used to prove or disprove a mathematical statement; it may contain direct statements with supporting reasons, examples, counterexamples or special cases.
Metric Of or using the metric system.
Metric System A system of measurement based on tens (the decimal system). The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram. The basic unit of capacity is the liter.
Metric Units Units used in the metric system: Length (meter):kilometer, hectometer, decameter, meter, decimeter, centimeter, millimeter. Capacity (liter):kiloliter, hectoliter, decaliter, liter, deciliter, centiliter, milliliter. Mass (gram): kilogram, hectogram, decagram, gram, decigram, centigram, milligram.
Midpoint The point on a line segment that divides it into two congruent segments.
Mile A customary unit of length; 1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet. The abbreviation for mile is "mi."
Milligram A metric unit used to measure mass; 1 milligram = 0.001 gram. The abbreviation for milligram is "mg."
Milliliter A metric unit used to measure capacity; 1 milliliter = 0.001 liter. The abbreviation for milliliter is "mL."
Millimeter A metric unit used to measure length; 1 millimeter = 0.001 meter. The abbreviation for millimeter is "mm."
Minor Arc An arc of a circle that is less than a semicircle.
Minuend The minuend is the first value in a subtraction problem. Usually a smaller value is subtraction from a larger value.That larger value will often be the minuend.
Minus A term that refers to subtraction or the symbol of subtraction.
Minus Sign A dash that is used in formulas to state that subtraction will occur. "3 - 2 = 1" The symbol for minus is "-".
Minute A unit used to measure time; 1 minute = 1/60 of an hour. The abbreviation for minute is "min."
Minute Hand The longer hand on an analog clock; it tells the minutes.
Mixed Number A number composed of an integer and a proper fraction. Example: 3 and 2/9.
Misleading Graph A graph that leads the reader to make an incorrect conclusion or to form a false impression.
Misleading Statistics Statistics that lead the reader to make an incorrect conclusion or form a false impression.
Missing Value A value omitted from an equation that is needed to make the equation true. Example: ( 3 * 4 ) + X = 16.
Mode In statistics, the value that occurs most frequently in a given series of numbers. There may be one, more than one, or no mode. Example: The mode of the set {13, 5, 9, 11, 15, 8, 10} is 15.
Model (mathematical) A [verb] and a noun. [Generate] a mathematical representation (e.g., number, graph, matrix, equation(s), geometric figure) for real world or mathematical objects, properties, actions, or relationships.
Model (noun) A visual representation that illustrates or further explains a mathematical principle or concept.
Model (verb) To make or act out a representation of something, usually on a smaller scale or in a simpler way; to use pictures, diagrams, or physical objects to further demonstrate or clarify a problem.
Money Something generally accepted as a medium of exchange, a measure of value, or a means of payment.
Monomial A polynomial with one term. It is a number, a variable, or the product of a number (the coefficient) and one or more variables. Examples: -1/4, x2, 4a2b, -1.2, 7x3yz2 ).
Month A unit used to measure time on a calendar. 12 months = 1 year.
Most Most is a value that has the greatest in quantity, extent, or degree.
Multiple The product of a given whole number and any other whole number.
Multiple Representations Various ways to present, interpret, communicate, and connect mathematical information and relationships.
Multiplicand The number being multiplied in a multiplication problem.
Multiplication A mathematical operation of combining groups of equal amounts; repeated addition; the inverse of division.
Multiplicative Inverse The reciprocal of a number; the number, which when multiplied by a given number, produces the multiplicative identity 1; in the set of real numbers the number a given number needs to be multiplied by to yield 1.; n*n-inverse = 1 for all n. Examples: 7x1/7=1 and 2/3 * 3/2 = 1.
Multiplier The number that one is multiplying by in a multiplication problem.
Multiply The act of multiplication. See Multiply.
Multi-Step Equation An equation or inequality that requires two or more steps to solve.


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